Have you ever heard about Silla kingdom or Bell-beaker civilization? Silla kingdom has almost 1000 years of existence and Bell-beaker civilization is named after people found their ancient objects. They are ancient cultures in which there are little historical documents.
This is the most dominant kingdom of the Korean peninsula from 57 BC to 935 years, but very few ruins remain.
In 2013, archaeologists found an intact skeleton of a woman over 30 years old, near the ancient capital of the Silla – today is Gyeongju, a southeast coastal city of South Korea. Analysis showed that the skeleton seems to be a vegetarian with the diet including rice, potatoes and wheat. She also has a long skull.
Bak Hyeokgeose King formed Silla. Legend has it that he hatched from an egg in the mysterious forest and married a queen born from ribs of a dragon.
Over time, the culture of Silla developed into a centralized hierarchical society with a rich aristocracy. Although remnants are very rare, archaeologists have unearthed many luxury goods made from this culture, from the knife of gold and garnets to cast-iron statue and jewelry, and much more are on display at the national Museum in Gyeongju, South Korea.
Indus has been known as the largest ancient local civilization until now, extending from the Indus River (the territory of Pakistan) to the Arab Sea and the Ganges in India. This civilization has existed for thousands of years, from 3300 to 1600 BC.
Indian, also known as the Harappan, has developed sewer and drainage system for their city; building the walls and a large barn, producing pottery and jewelry beads.
They even know dental care. According to a study published in the journal Nature in 2006, scientists have found 11 molars with drilled trace of adults living from 7,500 to 9,000 years ago in the Indus valley.
A study in 2012 showed that climate change has reduced the monsoon rains and droughts in many parts of the territory of the Harappan, forcing them to disperse gradually to places with wetter climate.
Sanxingdui is the civilization of Bronze Age, developing in Sichuan Province, China nowadays. In 1929, a Chinese farmer found many artifacts from her garden belonging to this civilization. Excavations were deployed later in 1986 found more carvings of jade and copper 2.4 meters high.
However, they have still not identified who are the Sanxingdui despite the archaeological evidence of the arts and their culture. They are authors of numerous copper and gold mask leaves, in which the archaeologists believe that is the embodiment of the gods or their ancestors, according to Sangxingdui museum in China.
Archaeological evidence shows that from about 2800 to 3000 years ago, the Sanxingdui have left this land and migrate to the city nearby ancient Jinsha.
The cause may be due to an earthquake and a large landslide that make Minjiang river divert, causing dehydration in this area, forcing residents to move to other places, as reported by the American Geophysical Union, 2014 .
This is the culture of mysterious. It existed around 1000 BC to the year 300 in Northern Nigeria today.
According to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, the evidence of Nok was discovered by chance by tin mining operations in 1943.
Miners discovered a terra-cotta head, a sign of a rich sculpture. After that, many other terracotta artifacts were also found, including those described human wear jewelry, carrying sticks and weapons – symbols of power can be found in ancient Egyptian art. Some other sculptures depict human diseases, such as edema.
Some antiques stolen before archaeologists could analyze increase more mystery for this civilization. In 2012, the US returned the antiques belonging to the Nigerian Nok culture. This is the stuff stolen from the National Museum of Nigeria and sold to the US.
The Etruscans had a thriving society in northern Italy from circa 700-500 BC, the time before the Roman annexation. They left a unique writing system with luxury family tomb.
Entruscan society is a theocratic society, in which exhibits showing the religious rituals are part of everyday life. The oldest description of childbirth in the Western art – a goddess squat to give birth – is found in protected area Entruscans, Poggio colla, near the town of Vicchio, Italy. In addition, the archaeologists found a sandstone slab with 1.2 x 0.6 meters in size engraving Entruscan language.
Another area of Entruscan is Poggio civitate. This is a combination of the squares surrounding an exposed courtyard. According to the archaeologists have studied 25,000 antiques here, this building is considered the largest construction of the Mediterranean at that time.
Some cultures are known mainly through notes from other cultures. That is the case of the mysterious land of Punt, a kingdom located in Africa and trade with the Egyptians.
Two kingdoms exchanged goods at least to the 26th century BC, during the reign of Pharaoh Khufu (who built the pyramids of Giza).
The strange thing is that no one knows exactly where this kingdom located. The Egyptians have many descriptions of the goods they receive from Punt (gold, ebony, myrrh) and the voyage explorations to the kingdom.
Many scholars said that the kingdom Punt lies somewhere in Arab, North African or Eastern, or can also in the downstream of the Nile, in Sudan’s southern border and Ethiopia today.
This civilization is named by found antiquities. Antiques include many potteries shaped like upturned bell.
Residents of this civilization lived across Europe between 2800 and 1800 BC. Besides pottery, they left the bronze artifacts and tombs, including a cemetery of 154 graves located in the region of the Czech Republic today.
According to the researchers, these residents are an essential part in building Stonehenge megalithic stone structures in Wales.